被動式水下聲學監測離岸風場海洋動物生態活動

口頭發表於第20屆水下技術研討會

被動式水下聲學監測離岸風場海洋動物生態活動

林子皓[1] 楊信得[2] 黃鈞漢[3] 姚秋如[4]

[1] 日本國立研究開發法人海洋研究開發機構博士後研究員
[2] 觀察家生態顧問有限公司水域部專員
[3] 觀察家生態顧問有限公司水域部經理
[4] 國立自然科學博物館助理研究員

離岸風能開發已成為台灣的重要再生能源政策之一,但如何在公開透明的前提下探討離岸風場海洋開發與海洋生態的交互作用仍是一大難題。被動式水下聲學監測已經被廣泛的應用於海洋動物生態研究,如:鯨豚、發聲魚類、槍蝦等動物,透過系統性、標準化方法所取得的水下錄音,將可以做為長期生態監測的數位化公開資料,並可供所有權益關係人重複檢驗。本研究應用基於預定義規則的能量偵測器與基於長期時頻譜資料的週期性編碼非負矩陣分解法,比較兩種演算法在偵測鯨豚與石首魚聲音的效能差異。結果顯示,兩種方法在高訊噪比的情況下皆能有效偵測,但在低訊噪比的情況下則有不同程度的偏差。因此,建議未來在進行離岸風場的水下聲學監測時,除了可使用多種偵測工具評估分析結果之外,也必須公開部分的水下錄音與動物聲音標籤資料,以協助權益關係人重複檢驗動物聲音偵測結果的可信度。未來,透過標準化的生態指標分析將能夠提高離岸風場生態環境監測資料的價值,做為後續進行生態檢核與保育經營管理的重要依據。

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以國際技術指引探討我離岸風場水下噪音監測評估適用方法

論文發表於2017台灣風能協會會員大會暨學術研討會與科技部成果發表會

以國際技術指引探討我離岸風場水下噪音監測評估適用方法

湛翔智、蕭婷宇、潘柔安
知洋科技有限公司

連永順、王珮蓉、胡芳瑜
工業技術研究院

林子皓
中央研究院

我國政府採「先示範、次潛力、後區塊」三階段離岸風電推動策略,示範獎勵辦法在2012年公告,評選出3案離岸示範風場,接著於2015年公告潛力場址,目前有超過20件開發案提出申請,首先均需通過環評審查。然而各項環評審查項目中,風場開發產生水下噪音對海洋動物影響的問題較為複雜,主要原因是水下噪音監測方法尚無國際標準,困難處是要在海上取得足夠且有效數據,必須有詳實規劃和充分準備,才能利用測量資料來分析水下噪音影響程度。歐洲離岸風電有超過10個國家投入開發,但各國有不同的水下噪音影響評估方式,其中以德國政府提出的技術指引,在監測要求與開發限制上較為嚴格。而歐盟自2008年提出「良好環境狀態(GES)」綱要,提供給歐盟成員國作為管制參考依據,包含離岸風能開發的監測與評估要求。美國投入離岸風能的前期研究多年,直到2016年完成首座風場正式商轉,同年也公告「海洋哺乳類動物聽覺技術指引」,將水下噪音對數種鯨豚的各種影響程度,制訂出水下噪音傷害管制門檻。本研究將探討國際上最新的水下噪音監測與評估技術指引,並依循國內離岸風場的發展情況,提出適用方式的建議供各界參考。

The government devised the offshore wind promotion strategy with 3 phases, which include Demonstration Incentive Program, Zone Application for Planning, and Zonal Development. The demonstration incentive program was announced in 2012, and three projects have been selected accordingly. Then, the Directions of Zone Application for Planning (DZAP) was announced in 2015. More than 20 projects have applied for the DZAP, and they are required to pass environmental impact assessments (EIA) to obtain the first step approval for construction. However, the impact of underwater noise on marine mammal during construction and operation phases are very complex. The key issue is that the underwater noise monitoring method has no international standards and it is difficult to measure sufficient and valid data at sea. Moreover, EIA needs very detailed planning and comprehensive preparation to obtain data and analyze the impact assessment from underwater noise. More than 10 countries in Europe already installed offshore wind farms and employ different assessment methods for underwater noise impact. The requirement of the German government’s technical guidelines for underwater noise monitoring and assessment is most rigid and strict. Since 2008, the EU has proposed the “Good Environmental State (GES)” framework for the member states to achieve requirements for the offshore wind energy development monitoring and evaluation. The United States announced the Marine Mammal Acoustic Technical Guidance in 2016, which provides several acoustic thresholds on different species of marine mammal. This study will discuss the latest international technical guidelines for underwater noise monitoring and assessment. Finally, we carried out the report included the applicable method of underwater noise monitoring and assessment based on the development of offshore wind farms in Taiwan.

論文全文 (pdf)

Conference presentation: 21st Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals

13-18 Dec 2015

A noisy dinner? Passive acoustic monitoring on the predator-prey interactions between Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins and croakers

Tzu-Hao Lin, Wen-Ching Lien, Chih-Kai Yang, and Lien-Siang Chou
Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, National Taiwan University

Shane Guan
Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, MD, USA

The spatio-temporal dynamics of prey resources have been considered as important factors for shaping the distribution and behavior of odontocetes. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) is a costal species, which primary feeds on benthic croakers. It has been hypothesized that the distribution pattern and periodic occurrence of humpback dolphins are results of their prey movement. However, the interactions between humpback dolphins and croakers remain unclear. During May 2013 and November 2014, underwater sound recordings were collected in western Taiwan waters. Croaker choruses and humpback dolphin echolocation clicks were automatically detected using custom developed algorithms. Both croaker choruses and dolphin clicks were frequently detected in shallow estuarine waters during spring and summer. In addition, shorter inter-click intervals were detected with higher frequencies in these areas, indicating more likely foraging behavior. Current results suggest that the core habitats of humpback dolphins show an agreement with the areas of prominent croaker chorus. Diurnal cycle analysis showed that croaker choruses were most evident after sunset to until approximately 4 A.M. In estuarine waters, humpback dolphin clicks were most frequently detected during the nighttime, with reduced detection rates after 8 A.M. This suggests that the diurnal behavior of humpback dolphins could be associated with the calling behavior of croakers. Although whether the position of a calling croaker could be passively localized by a dolphin remains unknown, our results indicate that the foraging probability of humpback dolphins may be elevated during the nighttime chorus of croakers. Information regarding the spatio-temporal dynamics of croaker chorus can be important for the conservation management of humpback dolphins. Further details on the predator-prey interactions between humpback dolphins and croakers can be investigated by using hydrophone arrays.

Poster (pdf)

離岸風場開發噪音對沿岸鯨豚類動物之衝擊

離岸風場開發噪音對沿岸鯨豚類動物之衝擊

林子皓1、林思瑩1、余欣怡1、周蓮香1*

1國立台灣大學生態學與演化生物學研究所

摘要

台灣西岸的風能豐沛,離岸風力發電將為重要的再生能源產業。然而台灣目前預定的風場位置大多與中華白海豚活動範圍重疊或比鄰。中華白海豚在台灣西部沿海的族群極度瀕危,少於100隻個體,因此亟須審慎評估離岸風場開發對中華白海豚之生態影響,尤其是所產生的水下噪音的潛在衝擊。離岸風場開發過程中,以打樁工程、船隻交通所產生之人為噪音衝擊層面最廣,運轉的噪音影響較小,可能造成的生態影響尚不明。高強度的噪音可能會對鯨豚造成的影響包括:聽力損傷,行為反應、棲地位移、遮蓋效應,或增加鯨豚長期的生理壓力。目前尚未見離岸風場開發影響中華白海豚生態之研究發表,本文彙整國際上離岸風場對沿岸鯨豚類之短期與長期生態影響資訊,並根據目前了解之噪音衝擊面向,研擬三大方向的減輕措施:預防性措施、減輕衝擊措施以及施工管制措施。利用以上資訊依循預警原則的觀念進行開發計畫,減低對於中華白海豚的影響。

全文請至下面連結下載觀看。

offshore windfarm impact_CH