In this Soundscape Conference, we had several presentations using the hypothesis-driven approach of soundscape information retrieval (SIR) to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of marine/terrestrial soundscapes.
- Tomonari AKAMATSU, Tzu-Hao LIN, Frederic SINNIGER, Saki HARII. Soundscape phenology in coral reef.
- Colin Wen. Human disturbance on fish, fisheries and marine soundscape in an intertidal coralline algal reef, Taoyuan.
- Florence EVACITAS, Tzu-Hao LIN. Coral reef soundscapes of Cebu, Philippines: Initial results and future directions.
- Shih-Ching YEN, Tzu-Hao LIN, Pei-Jen LEE SHANER. An application of acoustic and visual information to monitor activities of sika deer.
Besides, we also have one presentation related to the chronic effect of underwater noise on fish.
- Yi Ta SHAO, Tzu-Hao LIN. Listening to underwater noise: impacts of chronic noise exposure on fishes.
Oral presentation in Underwater Technology 2019 Kaohsiung
Evaluating changes in the marine soundscape of an offshore wind farm via the machine learning-based source separation
Tzu-Hao Lin1, Hsin-Te Yang2, Jie- Mao Huang2, Chiou-Ju Yao3, Yung-Shun Lien4, Pei-Jung Wang4, Fang-Yu Hu4
1Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Japan
2Observer Ecological Consultant, Taiwan
3Nature Museum of Natural Science, Taiwan
4Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan
Investigating the ecological effects of offshore wind farms requires comprehensive surveys of marine ecosystem. Recently, the monitoring of marine soundscapes has been included in the rapid appraisals of geophysical events, marine fauna, and human activities. Machine learning is widely applied in acoustic research to improve the efficiency of audio processing. However, the use of machine learning to analyze marine soundscapes remains limited due to a general lack of human-annotated databases. In this study, we used unsupervised learning to recognize different sound sources underwater. We also quantified the temporal, spatial, and spectral variabilities of long-term underwater recordings collected near Phase I of the Formosa I wind farm. One source separation model was developed to recognize choruses made by fish and snapping shrimp, as well as shipping noise. Another model was developed to identify transient fish calls and echolocation clicks of marine mammals. Models were trained in an unsupervised manner using the periodicity-coded non-negative matrix factorization. After the sound sources were separated, events can be identified using Gaussian mixture models. Our information retrieval techniques facilitate future investigations of the spatiotemporal changes in marine soundscapes and allow to build an annotated database efficiently. The soundscape information can be used to evaluate the potential impacts of noise-generating activities on soniferous marine animals and their acoustic behavior before, during, and after the development of offshore wind farms.
We will have the first soundscape conference in ISGC 2019 on April 1st and 2nd. Speakers from Taiwan, Japan, US, Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam will contribute. Please join us if you are interested in the soundscape and its potential applications in ecological monitorings.
Date: Monday – Tuesday, 1 – 2 April 2019
Venue: 3F, Building for Humanities and Social Science, Academia Sinica
Besides, I will also give a talk regarding “Exploring ecosystem dynamics by hypotheses-driven soundscape information retrieval“.
Soundscape information retrieval represents the technique to extract meaningful information relevant to geophysical, biological, and anthropogenic activities from field recordings. Supervised source separation and audio recognition techniques have been widely employed in the past, but the performance depends on the quantity of training database and the complexity of testing data. To counter this issue, unsupervised learning approaches, such as blind source separation and clustering tools, have been recently introduced to analyze the dynamics of marine and terrestrial soundscapes. However, the performance of unsupervised learning relies on a proper hypothesis for the input data. Until now, it remains a challenge for ecological researchers to integrate proper hypotheses in soundscape information retrieval. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the integration of acoustic niche hypothesis, which predicts soniferous species will avoid acoustical competition by shifting acoustic niche in time or frequency domains, in the analysis of soundscape dynamics in the shallow waters off western Taiwan. In the future, more advanced techniques of source information retrieval are necessary to facilitate the soundscape-based ecosystem monitoring. The domain knowledge of ecological science and bioacoustics will be essential for the future development of soundscape information retrieval.
We will attend the Symposium of Integrative Biology: Biodiversity in Asia, which is held at Kyoto University next week, to present our recent progress in the information retrieval of marine soundscapes.
Last year, we published the toolbox of Soundscape Viewer, which aims to help researchers evaluate changes in the marine soundscape without any recognition database. In this poster, we summarize the general procedures of soundscape information retrieval and demonstrate the application of studying the phenology of soniferous marine animals in estuarine waters, upper mesophotic corals, and continental shelf environments.
You can also find the pdf copy of this poster here.
The soundscape is a mixture of biophony, geophony, and anthrophony, thus, the disentanglement of different sound sources will be a key step in exploring the complexity of soundscape. Our work is still in the beginning phase, collaborations in ecoaoustics, acoustic information retrieval, or similar subjects are very welcome!
Two presentations were given during the ASA Victoria. Now you can access the slides and recordings by ASA website:
Feel free to contact me if you have any question.
Last year, we published the periodicity-coded nonnegative matrix factorization (PC-NMF). It has been demonstrated to work in various ecosystems. Recently, we have integrated the PC-NMF and k-means clustering in the toolbox of soundscape information retrieval. On the basis of this toolbox, one can explore the variability of soundscape and recognize different audio events without a recognition database.
Please go to the following link to download the codes of Soundscape_Viewer. If you register an account on CodeOcean, you will be able to upload your long-term spectrograms and run the analysis on the cloud. If you have a MATLAB license, you can also execute Soundscape_viewer.m to initiate a graphical user interface.